diversification

Adapt or Live: Adaptation, Convergent Evolution, and Plesiomorphy

A diversity of cranial phenotypes and feeding ecologies characterizes phyllostomid bats. However, many subfamilies share a similar insect-feeding morphotype, apparently stable over millions of generations. Is the diversity of phyllostomid traits …

Phylogenetics and Historical Biogeography

Traditionally, the phylogeny of phyllostomids contained a few subfamilies sharing similar cranial and ecological traits. Family-wide genetic sequence data starting in the early 2000s, however, showed that this phylogeny obscured the taxonomy, …

Foraging shifts and visual preadaptation in ecologically diverse bats

Changes in behaviour may initiate shifts to new adaptive zones, with physical adap- tations for novel environments evolving later. While new mutations are commonly considered engines of adaptive change, sensory evolution enabling access to new …

On the Evolution and Diversification of Andean Hummingbirds

At first look, the harsh physical conditions of the Andes should impose serious physiological constraints on hummingbirds, but instead, they have a wide distribution and are abundant at high altitudes. Several studies suggest highland species are …

Bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea) Challenge a Recent Origin of Extant Neotropical Diversity

The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a …

Amino acid transporter expansions associated with the evolution of obligate endosymbiosis in sap-feeding insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha)

Mutualistic obligate endosymbioses shape the evolution of endosymbiont genomes, but their impact on host genomes remains unclear. Insects of the sub-order Sternorrhyncha (Hemiptera) depend on bacterial endosymbionts for essential amino acids present …

Morphological innovation, diversification and invasion of a new adaptive zone

How ecological opportunity relates to diversification is a central question in evolutionary biology. However, there are few empirical examples of how ecological opportunity and morphological innovation open new adaptive zones, and promote …