pseudogene

Expressed vomeronasal type-1 receptors (V1rs) in bats uncover conserved sequences underlying social chemical signaling

In mammals, social and reproductive behaviors are mediated by chemical cues encoded by hyperdiverse families of receptors expressed in the vomeronasal organ. Between species, the number of intact receptors can vary by orders of magnitude. However, …

Multifactorial processes underlie parallel opsin loss in neotropical bats

The loss of previously adaptive traits is typically linked to relaxation in selection, yet the molecular steps leading to such repeated losses are rarely known. Molecular studies of loss have tended to focus on gene sequences alone, but overlooking …

Trpc2 pseudogenization dynamics in bats reveal ancestral vomeronasal signaling, then pervasive loss

Comparative methods are often used to infer loss or gain of complex phenotypes, but few studies take advantage of genes tightly linked with complex traits to test for shifts in the strength of selection. In mammals, vomerolfaction detects chemical …

A Cluster of Olfactory Receptor Genes Linked to Frugivory in Bats

Diversity of the mammalian olfactory receptor (OR) repertoire has been globally reshaped by niche specialization. However, little is known about the variability of the OR repertoire at a shallower evolutionary timeframe. The vast bat radiation …

The Nature and Dynamics of Bacterial Genomes

Though generally small and gene rich, bacterial genomes are constantly subjected to both mutational and population-level processes that operate to increase amounts of functionless DNA. As a result, the coding potential of bacterial genomes can be substantially lower than originally predicted. Whereas only a single pseudogene was included in the original annotation of the bacterium Escherichia coli, we estimate that this genome harbors hundreds of inactivated and otherwise functionless genes. Such regions will never yield a detectable phenotype, but their identification is vital to efforts to elucidate the biological role of all the proteins within the cell.