hummingbirds

Pervasive genomic signatures of local adaptation to altitude across highland specialist Andean hummingbird populations

Populations along steep environmental gradients are subject to differentiating selection that can result in local adaptation, despite countervailing gene flow and genetic drift. In montane systems, where species are often restricted to narrow ranges …

The allometry of daily energy expenditure in hummingbirds: an energy budget approach

Within‐clade allometric relationships represent standard laws of scaling between energy and size, and their outliers provide new avenues for physiological and ecological research. According to the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, metabolic …

Parallel molecular evolution in pathways, genes, and sites in high-elevation hummingbirds revealed by comparative transcriptomics

High-elevation organisms experience shared environmental challenges that include low oxygen availability, cold temperatures, and intense ultraviolet radiation. Consequently, repeated evolution of the same genetic mechanisms may occur across …

On the Evolution and Diversification of Andean Hummingbirds

At first look, the harsh physical conditions of the Andes should impose serious physiological constraints on hummingbirds, but instead, they have a wide distribution and are abundant at high altitudes. Several studies suggest highland species are …

An apparent hybrid Heliodoxa hummingbird from the West Andes of Colombia

Details and photographs are presented of an individual mistnetted in the West Andes of Colombia in 1997, which seems possibly to represent a combination between Fawn-breasted Brilliant *Heliodoxa rubinoides* and Empress Brilliant *H. imperatrix*.