hierarchical models

Multifactorial processes underlie parallel opsin loss in neotropical bats

The loss of previously adaptive traits is typically linked to relaxation in selection, yet the molecular steps leading to such repeated losses are rarely known. Molecular studies of loss have tended to focus on gene sequences alone, but overlooking …

A coalescent-based estimator of genetic drift, and acoustic divergence in the Pteronotus parnellii species complex

Determining the processes responsible for phenotypic variation is one of the central tasks of evolutionary biology. While the importance of acoustic traits for foraging and communication in echolocating mammals suggests adaptation, the seldom-tested …

Opposition Support and the Experience of Violence Explain the Colombian Peace Referendum

What factors led to the surprise defeat of the Colombian peace referendum? Descriptive analyses suggested a link between support for peace and the experience of violence, but economic conditions and political support for incumbent parties also affect …

Eating down the food chain: generalism is not an evolutionary dead end for herbivores

The role of trophic specialisation in taxonomic diversification remains unclear. Plant specialists diversify faster than omnivores and animalivores, but at shorter macroevolutionary scales this pattern sometimes reverses. Here, we estimate the effect …

Deforestation and Coca Cultivation Rooted in Twentieth-Century Development Projects

Most of the world's coca—the source of cocaine—is grown in the Amazonian forests of Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia. As cultivation continues despite eradication, a shift to giving farmers more incentives to abandon coca is currently proposed. Assuming …

Bayesian hierarchical models suggest oldest known plant-visiting bat was omnivorous

The earliest record of plant visiting in bats dates to the Middle Miocene of La Venta, the world's most diverse tropical palaeocommunity. Palynephyllum antimaster is known from molars that indicate nectarivory. Skull length, an important indicator of …