Birth-death models

Expressed vomeronasal type-1 receptors (V1rs) in bats uncover conserved sequences underlying social chemical signaling

In mammals, social and reproductive behaviors are mediated by chemical cues encoded by hyperdiverse families of receptors expressed in the vomeronasal organ. Between species, the number of intact receptors can vary by orders of magnitude. However, …

Protocols for the Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Membrane Protein Gene Duplicates

Gene duplication is an important process in the evolution of gene content in eukaryotic genomes. Understanding when gene duplicates contribute new molecular functions to genomes through molecular adaptation is one important goal in comparative …

Amino acid transporter expansions associated with the evolution of obligate endosymbiosis in sap-feeding insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha)

Mutualistic obligate endosymbioses shape the evolution of endosymbiont genomes, but their impact on host genomes remains unclear. Insects of the sub-order Sternorrhyncha (Hemiptera) depend on bacterial endosymbionts for essential amino acids present …