dN/dS

Parallel molecular evolution in pathways, genes, and sites in high-elevation hummingbirds revealed by comparative transcriptomics

High-elevation organisms experience shared environmental challenges that include low oxygen availability, cold temperatures, and intense ultraviolet radiation. Consequently, repeated evolution of the same genetic mechanisms may occur across …

Protocols for the Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Membrane Protein Gene Duplicates

Gene duplication is an important process in the evolution of gene content in eukaryotic genomes. Understanding when gene duplicates contribute new molecular functions to genomes through molecular adaptation is one important goal in comparative …

Trpc2 pseudogenization dynamics in bats reveal ancestral vomeronasal signaling, then pervasive loss

Comparative methods are often used to infer loss or gain of complex phenotypes, but few studies take advantage of genes tightly linked with complex traits to test for shifts in the strength of selection. In mammals, vomerolfaction detects chemical …

Molecular evolution of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptors in long-lived, small-bodied mammals

Mammals typically display a robust positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Two groups that deviate markedly from this pattern are bats and African mole-rats, with members of both groups being extremely long-lived given their body size, …