convergence

Parallel molecular evolution in pathways, genes, and sites in high-elevation hummingbirds revealed by comparative transcriptomics

High-elevation organisms experience shared environmental challenges that include low oxygen availability, cold temperatures, and intense ultraviolet radiation. Consequently, repeated evolution of the same genetic mechanisms may occur across …

Integrating Incomplete Fossils by Isolating Conflicting Signal in Saturated and Non-Independent Morphological Characters

Morphological characters are indispensable in phylogenetic analyses for understanding the pattern, process, and tempo of evolution. If characters are independent and free of systematic errors, then combining as many different kinds of characters as …

Understanding phylogenetic incongruence: lessons from phyllostomid bats

All characters and trait systems in an organism share a common evolutionary history that can be estimated using phylogenetic methods. However, differential rates of change and the evolutionary mechanisms driving those rates result in pervasive …