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Adapt or Live: Adaptation, Convergent Evolution, and Plesiomorphy

A diversity of cranial phenotypes and feeding ecologies characterizes phyllostomid bats. However, many subfamilies share a similar insect-feeding morphotype, apparently stable over millions of generations. Is the diversity of phyllostomid traits …

Overview of This Book

This book discusses in detail the adaptive radiation of American leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae), the most diverse family morphologically, behaviorally, and trophically of all bats. It is divided into five major sections that cover the family’s …

Phylogenetics and Historical Biogeography

Traditionally, the phylogeny of phyllostomids contained a few subfamilies sharing similar cranial and ecological traits. Family-wide genetic sequence data starting in the early 2000s, however, showed that this phylogeny obscured the taxonomy, …

Protocols for the Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Membrane Protein Gene Duplicates

Gene duplication is an important process in the evolution of gene content in eukaryotic genomes. Understanding when gene duplicates contribute new molecular functions to genomes through molecular adaptation is one important goal in comparative …

The Ghosts of Development Past: Deforestation and Coca in Western Amazonia

For decades coca cultivation has been proposed as a cause of deforestation and attractor of migration to the forest frontier of western Amazonia. Evaluating the effects of coca cultivation has become a priority because averting deforestation has …

West Indian Mammals: the Old, the New, and the Recently Extinct

The West Indian mammal fauna has played a key role in the development of biogeographic ideas for over a century, but a synthesis explaining regional patterns of mammal diversity and distribution in a historical framework has not emerged. We review …

The river-refuge hypothesis and other contributions of Márcio Ayres to conservation science

For more than a century, biogeographers have sought to explain the large number of species found in Amazonian forests. The role of rivers as barriers to dispersal was recognized early on and this was the first evolutionary hypothesis to explain …

Earth history and the evolution of Caribbean bats

Although the natural history of the Caribbean is better understood now than ever before, a general biogeographic explanation for the peculiar faunal composition of the islands remains elusive. New molecular phylogenetic and divergence analyses …

Conservation in conflict: illegal drugs versus habitat in the Americas

Environmental damage from illicit drug crops in Colombia

The natural habitats of Colombia, its forests, rivers, and grasslands, are global conservation priorities because of the richness and endemism of their fauna and flora (McNeely et al., 1990; Myers et al., 2000; Olson & Dinerstein, 1998; Stattersfield …